AGN Variability

AGN Variability

Recent Research.-

*Astrophysics of Galaxies. High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena:

'In this work, we employ a magnetic accretion disk-outflow model to calculate the inflow time of the disk predominantly driven by magnetic outflows. In this model, most angular momentum of the gas in the disk is carried away by the outflows, and therefore its radial velocity can be substantially higher than that of a conventional viscous disk. Our calculations show that the inflow time of such a disk with outflows can be around several years to tens years. The calculated spectra of the disk with outflows can fit the observed spectra of a CL AGN Mrk 1018 quite well both in the low and high states. The derived inflow time of such a disk with outflows is around 5 years in the high state, while it becomes ∼20 years in the low state, which is roughly consistent with the observations of the variabilities in Mrk 1018'.

'In order to identify AGN candidates, we used mid-infrared (MIR) photometric observations from the all-sky Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission for a sample of 516 GPs. We select 58 GPs as candidate AGN based on a stringent 3-band WISE color diagnostic. Using multi-epoch photometry of W1 and W2 bands from the WISE/NEOWISE-R observations, we find 38 GPs showing significant variability in both the WISE bands. Four of these were selected as AGN by the WISE 3-band color diagnostic as well. Interestingly, we find a high fraction of MIR variable sources among GPs which demonstrates the uniqueness and importance of studying these extreme objects. Through this work, we demonstrate that photometric variability is a promising tool to select AGN that may be missed by other selection techniques (including optical emission-line ratios and X-ray emission) in star-formation dominated, low-mass, low-metallicity galaxie'.

'We present new IRAM NOrthern Extended Milimeter Array (NOEMA) observations of CO (1-0) in F07599+6508, Z11598−0112, F13342+3932, and PG1440+356, all nearby type-1 AGN and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We achieve spatial resolution of 1-3 arcsec corresponding to physical scales of 2--8~kpc and spectral resolution of 15-60 km s−1 which enables updated CO (1-0) redshifts and a detailed morphological view of the cold molecular gas in these sources. The CO (1-0) luminosities, L′CO, are in the range 2-12×109 K km s−1 pc2 and inferred molecular gas masses, M(H2), are in the range 2-9×109 M. The velocity fields and gas distributions do not unambiguously identify any of these sources as having outflows. However, Z11598−0112 has signs of infalling material and after the subtraction of a rotating disk model PG 1440+356 shows complex kinematics in the residuals that may indicate an outflow or warped disk'.

'While recent studies have found optical signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in a growing population of dwarf galaxies, these studies are biased against low metallicity and relatively merger-free galaxies, thus missing precisely the demographic in which to search for the relics of SMBH seeds. Here, we report the detection of the [\ion{Si}{6}]1.963~μm coronal line (CL), a robust indicator of an AGN in the galaxy SDSS~J160135.95+311353.7, a nearby (z=0.031) low metallicity galaxy with a stellar mass approximately an order of magnitude lower than the LMC (M∗≈108.56~M⊙) and no optical evidence for an AGN. The AGN bolometric luminosity implied by the CL detection is ≈1042~erg~s−1, precisely what is predicted from its near-infrared continuum emission based on well-studied AGNs. Our results are consistent with a black hole of mass ≈ 105~M⊙, in line with expectations based on its stellar mass. This is the first time a near-infrared CL has been detected in a low mass, low metallicity galaxy with no optical evidence for AGN activity, providing confirmation of the utility of infrared CLs in finding AGNs in low mass galaxies when optical diagnostics fail. These observations highlight a powerful avenue of investigation to hunt for low mass black holes in the JWST era'.

'To test the EAVN imaging performance for different sources, we observed four active galactic nuclei (AGN) having different brightness and morphology. As a result, we confirmed that Tianma 65-m Radio Telescope (TMRT) significantly enhances the overall array sensitivity, a factor of 4 improvement in baseline sensitivity and 2 in image dynamic range compared to the case of KaVA only. The addition of Nanshan 26-m Radio Telescope (NSRT) further doubled the east-west angular resolution. With the resulting high-dynamic-range, high-resolution images with EAVN (KaVA+TMRT+NSRT), various fine-scale structures in our targets, such as the counter-jet in M87, a kink-like morphology of the 3C273 jet and the weak emission in other sources, are successfully detected. This demonstrates the powerful capability of EAVN to study AGN jets and to achieve other science goals in general. Ongoing expansion of EAVN will further enhance the angular resolution, detection sensitivity and frequency coverage of the network'.

'The ionization profile extends over 10 [Mpc] comoving distance which can be observed in the order of 10 [arcmin]. From estimation of the radio galaxy number counts with high sensitivity observation through the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), we investigate the capability of parameter constrains for AGN luminosity function with Fisher analysis for three evolution model through cosmic time. We find that the errors for each parameter are restricted to a few percent when AGNs are sufficiently bright at high redshifts. We also investigate the possibility of further parameter constraints with future observation beyond the era of SKA'.

'These differences and the correlations between luminosities can shed light on the Jet-accretion disk connection. Most such studies use forward fitting parametric methods that involve several functions and many parameters. We use non-parametric, non-binning methods developed by Efron and Petrosian, and Lynden-Bell, for obtaining unbiased description of the evolution of the LF, from data truncated by observational selection effects. We present analysis of the evolution of gamma-ray LF of blazars with main focus on flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). This requires analysis of both gamma-ray and optical data, essential for redshift measurements, and a description of the joint LF. We use a new approach which divides the sample into two sub-samples, each with its own flux limit. We use the Fermi-LAT and GAIA observations, and present results on the gamma-ray LF and its evolution, and determine the intrinsic correlation between the gamma-ray and optical luminosities corrected for the well known false correlation induced by their similar redshift dependence and evolution of the two luminosities. We also present a direct estimation of the contribution of blazars to the spectrum of the extragalactic gamma-ray background'.

'Recent applications of novel methods from non-linear dynamics have shown promise in characterising higher modes of variability and time-scales in AGN. Recurrence analysis in particular can provide complementary information about characteristic time-scales revealed by other methods, as well as probe the nature of the underlying physics in these objects. Recurrence analysis was developed to study the recurrences of dynamical trajectories in phase space, which can be constructed from one-dimensional time series such as light curves. We apply the methods of recurrence analysis to two optical light curves of Kepler-monitored AGN'. 

'We present a numerical framework for the variability of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), which links the variability of AGNs over a broad range of timescales and luminosities to the observed properties of the AGN population as a whole, and particularly the Eddington ratio distribution function'. 

'We characterize the variability in nearly continuous optical observations of nine active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected with the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT), obtained during the K2 mission with the Kepler spacecraft with 1-minute or 30-minute cadences'. 

'The variations imply a global change in accretion power, but are too rapid to be communicated by inflow through a standard thin accretion disc. Such discs are long known to have difficulty explaining the observed optical/UV emission from active galactic nuclei'. 

'We present a comprehensive analysis of 21 light curves of Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGN) from the Kepler spacecraft. First, we describe the necessity and development of a customized pipeline for treating Kepler data of stochastically variable sources like AGN. We then present the light curves, power spectral density functions (PSDs), and flux histograms. The light curves display an astonishing variety of behaviors, many of which would not be detected in ground-based studies, including switching between distinct flux levels. Six objects exhibit PSD flattening at characteristic timescales that roughly correlate with black hole mass. These timescales are consistent with orbital timescales or free-fall accretion timescales. We check for correlations of variability and high-frequency PSD slope with accretion rate, black hole mass, redshift, and luminosity. We find that bolometric luminosity is anticorrelated with both variability and steepness of the PSD slope'. 

'We propose a model to simulate the evolution of AGN light curves with time based on the probability density function (PDF) and power spectral density (PSD) of the Eddington ratio (L/LEdd) distribution. Motivated by general galaxy population properties, we propose that the PDF may be inspired by the L/LEdd distribution function (ERDF), and that a single (or limited number of) ERDF+PSD set may explain all observed variability features. After outlining the framework and the model, we compile a set of variability measurements in terms of structure function (SF) and magnitude difference. We then combine the variability measurements on a SF plot ranging from days to Gyr. The proposed framework enables constraints on the underlying PSD and the ability to link AGN variability on different timescales, therefore providing new insights into AGN variability and black hole growth phenomena'. 

'We present a Green's Function-based method for using variability to (1) measure the time-scales on which flux perturbations evolve and (2) characterize the driving flux perturbations. We model the observed light curve of an AGN as a linear differential equation driven by stochastic impulses. We analyze the light curve of the Kepler AGN Zw 229-15 and find that the observed variability behavior can be modeled as a damped harmonic oscillator perturbed by a colored noise process. The model powerspectrum turns over on time-scale 385~d. On shorter time-scales, the log-powerspectrum slope varies between 2 and 4, explaining the behavior noted by previous studies'. 

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